Common Name: West African Rubber Tree. Funtumia elastica. Drawing of the leaves and flowers. Photograph by: Matilda Smith Public domain. Funtumia elastica (Preuss) Stapf [family APOCYNACEAE]. Common names. English West African rubber tree; Lagos silk rubber tree; bush rubber (Ghana. Description. Tree to 30 m tall; bole straight and cylindrical, crown narrow; bark brown to dark, thin, slightly fissured, becoming granular on old trees; Slash orange.

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Jameson J, Havran WL.

First, we found that multiple lots from two different commercial sources exhibited similar bioactivity, suggesting that a random contaminant likely did not account for our results. By using our services, you agree to our use of cookies. SchepetkinJeff HoldernessMark T. Briefly PBMCs from human donors were labeled with 2.

See Terms of Use for details. Both prophylactic and post-exposure strategies involving innate immune stimulation by adjuvants have been shown to prevent or ameliorate infections [ 4445 ]. Lines in Figure 2 represent the average relative gene expression levels of genes that changed at least funtymia.

Individual monosaccharide bands were scraped from the plate, extracted with H 2 O and quantified using a colorimetric method with monosaccharide standards. CDnegative cells were then stained with GD3. Spleen cells from C3H: A colorimetric method for the determination of sugars. Each resulting fraction was applied to bovine PBMC cultures for 24 hours. Antigen recognition by human T cell receptor gamma-positive lymphocytes.

Bioorg Med Chem Lett.

Antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory properties of Funtumia elastica.

Seven hours post-infection, mice were treated by i. However, there is precedence for novel non-LPS, plant-derived polysaccharides that interact with TLR4 to drive monocyte responses and that result in non-TLR4-dependent T cell responses. HeJ mice were treated fuhtumia the 3 sub-fractions of Yam-I in a priming assay, and proliferation was measured using CFSE staining in elastlca cytometry.


Flowers in axillary, many-flowered cymes, 5-merous, white to yellowish; peduncle 1 cm long; pedicel mm long; calyx 5 mm long, deeply divided, segments on the inside with 2 glands; corolla salver-shaped, tube mm long, segments oblong, about 5 mm long.

It was also apparent that treatment with Yam-I at many doses greatly reduced variability between animals; however, wide variation between PBS-treated animals precluded statistical significance within experiments. Induction of gamma delta T-lymphocyte effector functions by bisphosphonate zoledronic acid in cancer patients in vivo. The gamma delta T-cell bridge: The supernatant fluid was then filtered through a 0. Cookies help us deliver our services. Before the arrival of Hevea rubber, this was the most promising rubber tree in many tropical regions, primarily in West Africa.

Our data does not preclude the possibility that the relevant agonists in the plant bark are derived from commensal microbes endophytes associated with the plant. Twenty-four hours after infection, mice were euthanized and fecal pellets were collected. Interestingly, in models very similar to the peritonitis response we describe, such as an experimental sepsis model [ 48 ] and an E. Dittmer U, Olbrich AR. The supernatant fluid was removed and the process was repeated with fresh Polymyxin Support beads.

National Center for Biotechnology InformationU. GraffEmily M. This is a PDF file of an unedited manuscript that has been accepted for publication.

Negative regulation of airway responsiveness that is dependent on gamma delta T cells and independent of alphabeta T cells. Electrophoretic analysis of heterogeneous lipopolysaccharides from various strains of Vibrio vulnificus biotypes 1 and 2 by silver staining and immunoblotting.

Immunomodulatory activity of acidic elastkca isolated from Tanacetum vulgare L.


Funtumia elastica (PROSEA) – PlantUse English

Three separate experiments are shown, thin bar indicates mean, thick error bars represent SEM. The manuscript will undergo copyediting, typesetting, and review of the resulting proof before it is published in its final citable form.

The role of exogenous IL Support Center Support Center. Please note that during the production process errors may be discovered which could affect the content, and all legal disclaimers that apply to the journal pertain.

These fractions were analyzed by HPLC, and elution was monitored with a refractive index detector as described previously [ 30 ].

Skin gammadelta T-cell functions in homeostasis and wound healing. Clearly, Yam-I functionally overlaps with LPS to some extent but the intestinal mucosa is constantly exposed to LPS from food, environment and normal flora. Retrieved from ” https: The wood is white and soft, not durable, used for carving household utensils like spoons and bowls; it burns well and is a good firewood. Where presented, statistical significance was calculated using an unpaired, one-tailed t-test in Prism 5 GraphPad, Inc.

Slight differences were detected between the 3 sub-fractions. Anim Health Res Rev. Professional antigen-presentation function by human gamma delta T Cells.

Author manuscript; available in PMC Oct 1. Seed fusiform, about 1. Three fractions were obtained, designated as Yam-I-1 to Yam-I Toth GB, Pavia H. Very low concentrations of Yam-I drove neutrophil recruitment peritonitis in mice that was partially tolllike receptor 4 TLR4 – and myeloid differentiation primary response gene 88 MyD88 -independent, suggesting a mechanism unique from that of LPS.

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